Coconut Oil, MCT oil, and other Ketone/Cognition Boosters (salts, esters)

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Ketones, also known as ketone bodies, are a source of fuel for the body, especially the brain. With today’s diet most individuals burn glucose as a source of fuel, but ketones can also be made by the body for energy (endogenous ketones). Making ketones in the body for fuel was something our ancestors did with great regularity given the unpredictable/seasonal availability of food with no refrigerators or grocery stores. Today there are products that can be consumed for rapid conversion to ketones (exogenous ketones): coconut oil, MCT oil, salts, esters etc.

While glucose is typically an individual’s primary fuel, those with Alzheimer’s Disease have glucose uptake impairment in the brain. This is a condition that starts decades before cognitive impairment is evident and especially so in ApoE ε4s (Brain Glucose Hypometabolism and Oxidative Stress in Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease, Mosconi, et al 2008). But the brain is a fuel “hybrid” it can also burn ketones even if glucose uptake is impaired. In fact, there are many who argue the brain prefers ketones even though it’s not the main fuel(glucose) of the brain . Because ketones offer a source of energy for the brain, and the dual fuel system was how our ancestors operated, ketones are often advocated for ApoE ε4s. For more information, see Ketosis_and_Ketogenic_Diet

Source: Screen capture at 20:20 from the presentation Can Ketones Slow Down Alzheimer’s? published on YouTube Mar 8, 2018. A lecture given by Dr Stephen Cunane at The IHMC (The Institute for Human & Machine Cognition) as part of their Evening Lecture series.

In the presentation Can Ketones Slow Down Alzheimer’s? Dr Stephen Cunnane, who has researched omega-3 fatty acids and ketones in human brain development and function for over 30 years, posits two possibilities for Alzheimer’s: (1) That the brain’s cells are alive but glucose uptake is impaired, so unless ketones are available, they are starved for fuel. (2) That the brain’s cells are dead/dying and thus unable to uptake any form of fuel either glucose or ketones. He has found the first scenario to be more accurate: those with Alzheimer’s are able to use ketones even though they are unable to use glucose. Thus the rationale for providing ketones to enhance cognitive function. This of course is only accurate when intervention to provide ketones occurs early enough that the brain cells haven’t died due to a lack of an energy source and exposure to oxidizing agents.

Coconut oil and MCT oil

Coconut oil and MCT oil help boost ketones/brain function because, unlike other oils/foods, they are high in Medium Chain Triglycerides. In fact that’s what the MCT stands for: Medium Chain Triglyceride. The name just refers to the way the carbon atoms are arranged in their chemical structure, the important quality is in how they are metabolized. The fat in most food consists of long chain triglycerides. When you eat fat in the form of long chain triglycerides it is broken down in the small intestine. But medium-chain triglycerides, bypass that process, they go to the liver where they are quickly converted into ketones, which are then released back into your bloodstream and transported throughout the body, including the brain, to be used as fuel.

Carbon Atom make-up of Medium Chain Triglycerides

Coconut/MCT Oil and ApoE ε4

While both Coconut oil and MCT oil can boost brain function, ApoE ε4s are often advised to use them judiciously with the preferred source of ketones coming endogenously, i.e. made in the body by the liver through a process called ketogenesis. See Ketosis and Ketogenic Diet. In his book The End of Alzheimer’s Dr Dale Bredesen, internationally recognized expert in the mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases, refers to coconut oil and MCT oil by saying, ”But both may also have drawbacks for ApoE4-positive individuals …If you are ApoE4 positive, think of MCT and coconut oil as temporary crutches to ease your segue into fat burning mode.”

What Dr Bredesen is referring to when he says “segue into fat burning mode” is the keto adaptation process. When we are born, we are efficient ketone burners but as we approach adulthood, and especially with eating a mostly carbohydrate diet, our ability to produce/burn ketones goes into “sleep mode.” When reawakening this ability to burn fat for fuel in the body, the brain has to be weaned off the glucose and a person can feel bad (keto flu) during this adaptation process. Adding MCT or coconut oil can ease the transition.

Coconut oil or MCT oil does seem to be particularly useful for anyone with cognitive issues and insulin resistance. (A person can be insulin resistant without being Type 2 Diabetic (T2D), but if Type 2 Diabetic, a person is by definition insulin resistant. If not diabetic but insulin resistant, a person is on the path to Type 2 Diabetes and/or other significant health concerns whether or not diabetes develops. Intervention can reverse insulin resistance/Type 2 Diabetes. Unfortunately, insulin resistance often goes undiagnosed. For more info Insulin Resistance). Studies show a strong association between insulin resistance and/or diabetes with dementia and Alzheimer’s. If an ApoE ε4 carrier with insulin resistance or diabetes, this association with dementia and Alzheimer’s is particularly strong. At about the 33 minute point of this lecture, Can Ketones Slow Down Alzheimer’s?, Dr Cunnane discusses insulin resistance. He notes that if on a ketogenic diet but insulin resistant, the insulin resistance prevents the body’s fat tissue from releasing the fatty acids that are used to make ketones, thus preventing ketones from getting into the brain. But coconut oil and MCT bypass the glucose and Long Chain Fatty acid metabolism (that requires insulin) by going directly to the liver thereby providing ketones for the brain.

While helpful, there are areas of concern for ApoE ε4s when it comes to relying solely on supplementation of ketones to aid cognition versus addressing insulin resistance and using ketones produced by the body.

  • Providing fuel to the brain in the form of exogenous ketones can be considered a “band-aid” approach. It works around the problem but does not resolve the fuel impairment issue nor the insulin resistance. Insulin resistance/diabetes is associated with a number of other health concerns besides Alzheimer’s including vascular dementia and cardiovascular disease to which ApoE ε4s also have a greater predisposition.
  • Oils high in medium chain triglycerides are also high in saturated fats. Granted, saturated fats have been demonized more than they’ve deserved, see the subheading write-up A short history regarding contemporary attitudes about fat Fats, Omega -3(ω-3) & -6(ω-6), DHA and More. But there are studies that indicate saturated fats do have a more pronounced negative effect on ApoE ε4s, see the subheading Deeper Dive into the Science Fats, Omega -3(ω-3) & -6(ω-6), DHA and More
  • Oils high in medium chain triglycerides are also high in Omega-6s. Omega-6s are inflammatory when overconsumed, something to which ApoE ε4s are already highly susceptible. On the other hand, Omega-3s, found predominantly in unsaturated fats are critical contributors to cell structure and function in the central nervous system suggesting supplementation may slow early memory decline in ε4 carriers. For further discussion see the Omega -3s and Omega -6s subheading Fats, Omega -3(ω-3) & -6(ω-6), DHA and More. In balance, Omega-3s and Omega-6s work well together. In the Primer: An introduction to ApoE4, biochemistry, and possible prevention strategies a 3:1 ratio of Omega-6s to Omega 3-s is recommended, but most modern diets don’t support that. Coconut oil has a poor Omega -6 to -3 ratio of 88:1. Palm kernel oil is even worse with no Omega-3s whatsoever. Trying to counterbalance the Omega-6s by supplementing with Omega-3s might not work since Omega-3s and Omega-6s compete for the same conversion enzymes and the Omega-6s can “crowd out” the beneficial Omega-3s.

Comparison of Coconut oil to MCT oil

Advisability for ApoE ε4

Coconut Oil -- ApoE ε4s can use coconut oil topically on skin or hair for its antibacterial, antifungal, and moisturizer qualities, or swished in the mouth for the oral health benefits of “oil pulling.” However, for ApoE ε4s, digesting coconut oil for brain function enhancement may be best when just restricted to using it as an aid in transitioning to being a fat burner, i.e. ketogenic

MCT Oil -- For ApoE ε4s, it may be best to restrict consumption to using MCT oil as an aid when transitioning to a fat burner, i.e. ketogenic. It’s less controversial than coconut oil, but full effects on ApoE ε4 are uncertain.

Ketone efficiency

Coconut Oil -- Lauric acid (C12) makes up roughly 50%-75% of the fatty acids in solid coconut oil. Metabolism of lauric acid is different than the other three MCTs in Coconut Oil, it acts more like a long-chain fatty acid making it less ketogenic. Lauric acid does have immune boosting properties and other health promoting properties but it also raises cholesterol more than any other fatty acid, an issue of concern to ApoE ε4s.

MCT Oil -- MCT oil is derived from coconut oil and other sources by removing the longer chain Lauric Acid (C12) to offer a product that more efficiently produces ketones.

Use for cooking

Coconut Oil -- Good for cooking, as long as it is not used at high temperatures. At 350ᴼ F /171ᴼ C it has a lower smoke point in comparison to some other cooking oils.

MCT Oil -- MCT is not usually used for cooking (lower smoke point than coconut oil). It should not be heated to temperatures above 300ᴼ F/150ᴼ C or the oil will oxidize and break down. It can be added to recipes, smoothies, salad dressing, coffee, tea, etc. or just consumed as an oil by spoon.

Stomach Upset

Coconut Oil -- Not as likely to cause stomach upset

MCT Oil -- Consumption should start low and slow, one teaspoon at first, building up the dosage over time. If too much, too fast, the liver may not be able to process the fat and will dump some of it back to the intestines, where it can cause stomach upset and loose stools.

Effect on Sleep

Coconut Oil -- Usually doesn’t affect sleep

MCT Oil -- If taken at night, may be hard to sleep

Impact on Liver

Coconut Oil -- Individuals with liver cancer, elevated liver enzymes, extensive liver metastases, or liver disease can use coconut oil.

MCT Oil -- Individuals with liver cancer, elevated liver enzymes, extensive liver metastases, or liver disease should not use MCT oil.

How Made

Coconut Oil -- Coconut oil has been a dietary and beauty staple for ages. Unrefined coconut oil, also known as "virgin" or "pure," is made without chemical processing. Cold-pressed coconut oil is made in a heat-controlled environment and processed at temperatures that never exceed 120 degrees. Expeller-pressed coconut oil is processed at higher temperatures, typically around 210 degrees. Refined coconut oils are processed at upward of 400 degrees, which degrades the quality of the oil and requires further processing methods such as bleaching and deodorizing.

MCT Oil -- MCT oil is a relatively new introduction and not naturally expressed, but made through an industrial process. Many MCTs on the market are manufactured via chemical/solvent refining, which can require using chemicals like hexane and different enzymes and combustion chemicals, such as sodium methoxide. Be careful with the brand of MCT oil you purchase as it is important to get one that is tested for purity and heavy metals. To make MCT oil, the manufacturer starts with coconut oil or palm kernel oil. Corn oil and goat milk may also be used. Then these steps are followed: 1. Fractionation. Where caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) acid are extracted and separated, the remaining oil is a fraction of what it was (fractionated). Fractionated coconut oil is a product that can be purchased but is for skin care, not consumption. The remaining steps are what makes fractionated coconut oil edible. 2. Lipase Esterification. A chemical process that produces triglycerides, with the help of an enzyme called lipase. 3. Filtration to remove lipase. 4. Deacidification. 5. Bleaching and Deodorizing. 6. Packing

Other products to enhance ketones

Palm Kernel oil

Not to be confused with palm oil, is also a source of Medium Chain Triglycerides. Good for cooking, lower in cost, can be stored longer than other vegetable oils, and remains stable at high cooking temperatures, smoke point of 450°F/232°C. However, it is less advisable for ApoE4 ε4s than coconut oil. Palm kernel oil is high in saturated fats: approximately 82%, and contains no Omega-3s, see Fats, Omega -3(ω-3) & -6(ω-6), DHA and More subheading Omega -3s and Omega -6s. It is high in lauric acid which has been shown to raise blood cholesterol levels, both LDL-C and HDL-C, see Cholesterol, Lipids and Treatments, including statins

MCT Oil powder

MCT powder is a powdered form of medium-chain triglycerides. It is made via a process similar to how protein powders are made: spray drying. The product is then micro-encapsulated with a powder “carrier shell” to give it the appearance and convenience of a powder. MCT oil powders are generally composed of starch/ starch derivatives and milk proteins that can raise insulin levels. MCT powders need to be selected carefully to prevent insulin spikes.

Advantages of the powdered form of MCT:

  • Easier to incorporate into certain foods, such as baking recipes
  • Often used as a “creamer” in coffee offering a more traditional taste
  • More convenient to carry with you (say to the coffee shop) or travel with than a liquid
  • Less gastrointestinal distress than the oil

It should be noted that virtually all research on the benefits of MCT supplementation has used MCT oil, and not MCT oil powder.

For more information on MCT powders and a comparison of products: MCT Powder: How it Works, Comparison to MCT Oils, and Review of MCT Powder Products

XCT oil

XCT is made with only C8 Caprylic acid and C10 Capric acid which increase ketone levels more efficiently than coconut or MCT oil.

C8 oil

Made solely of C8 Capryllic acid which is only 6% of coconut oil. C8 has potent anti-microbial properties to help you maintain a healthy gut, and it is the fastest to metabolize in the brain. It is also the most expensive.

Ketone salts

Sometimes referred to as “Ketone Mineral Salts” or “BHB Mineral Salts.” Consists of Beta Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) (a ketone) bound to an electrolyte: such minerals as sodium, potassium, calcium, or magnesium. Made into a powder that tastes good for consumption. Commercially available supplements made from ketone salts include KetoForce, KetoCaNa and Keto OS.

Ketone esters

Synthetically-made compounds that link an alcohol to a ketone body. Unpleasant in taste. Primarily used in research. There is only one known commercial product available: HVMN According to Dr Dom D’Agostino, researcher on exogenous ketones, ketone esters need to be further studied and evaluated.

Deeper Dive into the Science

Recognized experts on ketones/exogenous ketone use

There are many videos, interviews, podcasts, blogs, books, etc. on ketosis and the use of supplementation to enhance ketone levels. With the wide number of sources comes varying degrees of quality. If any of the sources include one of the below listed individuals, the information can be considered sound. Do recognize that while these are all experts on ketones, not all have cognition, much less ApoE status, as a point of emphasis. This is not an all-inclusive list, just a good starting point if looking for more information.

Dominic D’Agostino, Ph.D

University of Southern Florida, likely the foremost researcher on exogenous ketones, particularly as ketones apply to cancer prevention and in the neuroprotective qualities of ketone therapy especially as it applies to severe environments (space, undersea diving) through his work with the Department of Defense and NASA. Videos and interviews: blog link:

Peter Attia, M.D

A surgeon who studied at Stanford Medical School and did his residency at Johns Hopkins University. His expertise is in weight loss, increasing longevity, and improving physical and mental performance. He has experimented heavily with ketosis, exogenous ketones and ketogenic diets.

Dr. Richard Veech

Senior researcher and laboratory chief at the National Institute of Health (NIH). He’s worked for the past 47 years researching the mechanics behind things like cellular energy and homeostasis. Research focuses heavily on the role of ketone bodies in regards to preventing metabolic diseases, such as type-2 diabetes. A link to his papers: Interview with Dr Veech Could This Ketosis-Based Elixir Hold The Key To Weight Loss, World Record Performances, Brain Healing and More?

Stephen Cunnane, Ph.D

Obtained a PhD in Physiology at McGill University in 1980, followed by post-doctoral research on nutrition and brain development in Aberdeen, London, and Nova Scotia. He was a faculty member in the Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, from 1986 – 2003, where his research overlapped two areas – (1) the role of omega-3 fatty acids in brain development and human health, and (2) the relation between ketones, the very high fat ketogenic diet and brain development. Papers include: “Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply Later in Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease” 08 July 2016,

Steven Phinney, MD, Ph.D

Stanford MD, PhD Nutritional Biochemistry MIT, Fellowship Harvard, Professor of Medicine Emeritus at the University of California-Davis. Currently co-founder of Virta Health. Dr. Phinney is an internationally recognized expert on obesity, carbohydrate-restricted and ketogenic diets, diet and performance, and essential fatty acid metabolism. Virta Health

Mary Newport, MD

Neonatologist, practiced in newborn intensive care units when her husband was diagnosed with early onset Alzheimer's disease. As caregiver to her husband, Dr Newport discovered the benefits of using coconut oil/ketone supplementation for Alzheimer’s treatment. Wrote the book, Alzheimer's Disease: What If There Was a Cure?: The Story of Ketones. Also the paper A new way to produce hyperketonemia: use of ketone ester in a case of Alzheimer's disease

Robb Wolf

Former research biochemist, health expert, and author of the New York Times bestselling The Paleo Solution. He has been a review editor for the Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism and Journal of Evolutionary Health; he serves on the board of Directors of Speciality Health Medical Clinic in Reno, Nevada and is a consultant for the Naval Special Warfare Resiliency program. His website: His podcast website: Offers a Keto Masterclass

Dave Asprey

Entrepreneur, businessman, and author, founded Bulletproof 360, Inc. in 2013, and Bulletproof Nutrition Inc. in 2017. Dave Asprey is a "biohacker," creator of 'Bulletproof Coffee' and the 'Bulletproof diet', and author of the book The Bulletproof Diet.

References on ketones and the brain

See Subheading: Additional references on ketosis or the introduction of ketones on cognition /Alzheimer’s from this link Ketosis and Ketogenic Diet